Direct & Indirect Narration

Direct & Indirect Narration:

Communication or Conversation between two or more people is called Narration.
It has two categories:
1- Direct Speech
2- Indirect Speech

1- Direct Speech:
When we write the sayings of some person in the same wording using inverted commas (“”), it is called Direct Speech.
He said, “I am Muslim”.
2- Indirect Speech:
When we convey someone’s message in our own wording, there occur many changes in the statement.
He said that he was Muslim.

Categories of Direct Speech:
Direct Speech is further divided into two parts i.e.
1- Reporting Speech
2- Reported Speech
1- Reporting Speech:
It means the words which are going to be reported followed by the words “say” or “said” generally.
He said to me,
2- Reported Speech:
The words which have been reported in the same wording as it is are said to be the reported speech.
“I am Muslim”.

Rules for Narration:

• In Direct Speech, reporting and reported parts must be separated by comma, otherwise it will become single speech and meaning might be different.
• There are six changes while converting Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:
1- Kind of Sentence
2- Change of Verb
3- Conjunction
4- Person
5- Tense
6- Time
So the Structure of Indirect Speech is
Kind of Sentence + Change of Verb + Conjunction + Person + Tense + Time


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